2019
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Lesson Learning Workshop Freetown November 2018

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1. Support to Anti - Corruption in Sierra Leone. Pay No Bribe – November CSO Lesson Learning Report December 2018

25. Annex One : PNB Partners’ views of the Sharing and Learning Meeting

36. Day Two, Session Ten: Recap of Previous Day

28. ACC - CARL Bo L e a r n i n g a n d S h a r i n g A C C / C A R L - S L P r e s e n t a t i o n 1 . P r o g r a m D e s i g n - T h e f i g h t a g a i n s t c o r r u p t i o n i s a n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n v i s - a - v i s t h e P a y N o B r i b e c a m p a i g n w h i c h h a s a n d c o n t i n u e s t o e n h a n c e e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y i n t h e p i l o t M D A s a n d o t h e r a s s o c i a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e a c t i v i t i e s e m b e d d e d i n t h e P N B s e r v e a s c h a n n e l s o f p r o m o t i n g p u b l i c c o m p l i a n c e t o t h e n o n - p a y m e n t o f b r i b e s f o r s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e s u p p o s e d t o b e f r e e ; t h e n o n - p a y m e n t o f b a i l f o r b a i l a b l e o f f e n c e s , t h e n o n - p a y m e n t o f c h a r g e s f o r t h e F r e e H e a l t h C a r e s e r v i c e s , t h e n o n - p a y m e n t o f c h a r g e s f o r i l l e g a l t u i t i o n f e e s e t c . - D e s p i t e t h e r o b u s t s e n s i t i z a t i o n s a n d e n g a g e m e n t s , t h e r e r e m a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r o f c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t s t i l l d o n o t r e p o r t o c c u r r e n c e s o f b r i b e r y a s t h e c u l t u r e o f s i l e n c e h a d b e e n p a r t o f t h e r u r a l c u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n t h u s n o t p h y s i c a l l y r e a c h e d d u r i n g t h e P N B c a m p a i g n p e r i o d . - T h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e a n i m a t o r s i n s o m e c h i e f d o m s h e l p e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e k n o w l e d g e o f c o m m u n i t i e s t o r e p o r t b r i b e r y . A s t h e s e r e p o r t s k e p t c o m i n g , t h e r e w a s i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e o n M D A s t o t a k e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t d e f a u l t e r s t h u s c r e a t i n g h i g h l e v e l o f t r a n s p a r e n c y a n d a c h a n g e i n b e h a v i o u r o f M D A s p e r s o n n e l o r s t a f f . - T h e j o i n t i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e C S O / A C C i n t h e P N B c a m p a i g n w a s a n d c o n t i n u e s t o b e t h e r i g h t m o d e l i n f i g h t i n g c o r r u p t i o n a s t h e C S O s c o n s t i t u e n t s r u n t h r o u g h t h e r u r a l p o o r w h o a r e l a r g e l y t h e s e r v i c e u s e r s . R a i s i n g t h e i r a w a r e n e s s w i l l h a v e g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e o n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f f u n c t i o n a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y - T h e D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s , N A S S I T , N R A , M A F F S a r e s o m e o t h e r M D A s t o b e i n c l u d e d a s p a r t n e r s f o r e f f e c t i v e s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . 2 . M D A R e s p o n s i v e n e s s W h a t w o r k e d w e l l ? M D A s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s d u r i n g t h e P N B c a m p a i g n c a n b e c o u n t e d o n a s ; - T h e h i g h l e v e l o f c o m p l i a n c e a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s ( j u n i o r , s e n i o r a n d m a n a g e m e n t ) t o e n s u r e t h a t s u s t a i n a b l e a c t i o n s a r e t a k e n a n d m a i n t a i n e d v i s - a - v i s t h e r o t a t i o n o f P o l i c e p e r s o n n e l f r o m D i v i s i o n s / l o c a t i o n s , r e q u e s t f o r t r a n s f e r s f o r d e f a u l t i n g t e a c h e r s f r o m s c h o o l s i n B o , t r a n s f e r o f n u r s e s f r o m U n d e r F i v e s t o T r i a g e t o r e d u c e s a l e s o f F H C d r u g s e t c . - c o n t i n u o u s e n g a g e m e n t b e t w e e n M a n a g e m e n t a n d p e r s o n n e l / s t a f f w e r e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e A c c o u n t a b i l i t y F o r u m s , H u b a n d S p o k e s v i s i t s , T W G s , C o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g s , R a d i o p r o g r a m s e t c . W h a t d i d n o t w o r k w e l l ? - M i l d p u n i s h m e n t m e l t e d o n d e f a u l t e r s - t e a c h e r s t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m o n e s c h o o l a r e f o u n d t e a c h i n g i n o t h e r s c h o o l s , P o l i c e p e r s o n n e l f o u n d w a n t i n g a f t e r t r a n s f e r a r e s o m e t i m e s k e p t i n t h e s a m e D i v i s i o n e t c . - l i m i t e d W h a t c a n ( s h o u l d ) c o n t i n u e ? - T h e A c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r u m s , T W G s , R a d i o , H u b a n d S p o k e M D A R e s p o n s i v e n e s s - M D A s t o m a k e t h e P N B a d e f a u l t p r o g r a m a n d e n s u r e t h a t i n t e r n a l m a n a g e m e n t s y s t e m s a r e g u a r a n t e e d t h r o u g h e f f e c t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e A C C . - A C C t o s i g n M O U s w i t h a l l M D A s i n m a k i n g t h e P N B p a r t o f t h e a n n u a l a c t i v i t y p l a n . 3 . C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d O u t r e a c h e s - T h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d O u t r e a c h s t r a t e g y h a v e b e e n v e r y e f f e c t i v e a s i t r e a c h e d o u t t o t h o u s a n d s o f w i l l i n g c i t i z e n s t o r e p o r t i s s u e s o f b r i b e r y a n d c o r r u p t i o n . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f I E C m a t e r i a l s a n d t h e p a s t i n g o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s b y P N B a n i m a t o r s a t v a n t a g e p o i n t s h e l p e d i m m e n s e l y t o e d u c a t e t h e c i t i z e n r y o n t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f b r i b e r y a n d c o r r u p t i o n . - T h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f a n i m a t o r s t o c o n d u c t c o m m u n i t y s e n s i t i z a t i o n s / o u t r e a c h e s , s e n s i t i z a t i o n s t h r o u g h R a d i o p r o g r a m s , F o r u m t h e a t r e w a s a m o v e i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n t o r a i s e a w a r e n e s s o f c i t i z e n s a n d e n h a n c e e f f e c t i v e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y a s r e s p o n s e s o n r e p o r t s f r o m M D A s w e r e e f f e c t i v e l y c o m m u n i c a t e d t o c o m m u n i t i e s a s a n d w h e n t h e y w e r e u p d a t e d . T h e s e m e a s u r e s e n h a n c e d p u b l i c t r u s t a n d c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e P N B t h u s t h e r e a s o n a b l e c a l l o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e P N B c a m p a i g n . W h a t w o r k e d w e l l ? W h a t c a n a n d s h o u l d c o n t i n u e ? - H u b a n d S p o k e s H u b a n d S p o k e s - T W G T W G - H u b a n d S p o k e A c c o u n t a b i l i t y F o r a - A c c o u n t a b i l i t y F o r u m s F o r u m T h e a t r e - F o r u m t h e a t r e C o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g s - C o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g s R a d i o p r o g r a m m e s - R a d i o p r o g r a m s 5 1 5 r e p o r t i n g p l a t f o r m - 5 1 5 r e p o r t i n g p l a t f o r m W h a t d i d n o t w o r k w e l l ? - F o c u s G r o u p D i s c u s s i o n

24. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 21 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Conclusion Edita and Lynda closed the workshop on behalf of the ACC and ACSL. They congratulated everyone for having been part of the journey and for the fact th at the PNB has achieved important results due to everyone’s hard work. They noted that the challenge is the sustainability of the PNB messages and the ability of all partners to take those forward in future areas of work. It will be important to continue t o remind citizens that bribery and corruption are not acceptable, and that government is committed to ensuring that citizens receive the services to which they are entitled. They pointed out that although PNB outreach activities through CSOs would end on 3 0 November 2018 outreach work will continue through the ACC , C apacity building activities with the ACC would continue until the end of February 2019. The DFID Programme Completion Report (PCR) would also take place in February, and partners should be prepa red to update their sustainability plans for a review by DFID as part of the PCR process. They then wished everyone well and invited them to participate in drinks and refreshments to celebrate PNB achievements.

35. What did not work? MDA responses and actions on both HQ and District levels are unspecific and vague Why did it not work? The PIMC did not want to commit themselves to actions that might cause internal problem. General culture of silence (NB data does not highligh t specific problems, but areas of concern. Hence providing specific responses to demands for intermediary actions from the IMCs to identify causes is challenging) Lessons The MDA management must clearly mandate, properly resource and track the delivery of the IMCs PNB data should be more detailed Lessons There should be an increased ownership of IMCs by MDA management, so there is an internal demand for IMC to take action The IMCs are properly mandated The IMCs are resourced This demand should came from th e highest level in Governance, so an accountability structure is created top - down. IMCs needs detailed data and support in order to be able to identify

33. Annex Four : Other presentations Session One: Endline Survey Session One: Mini Perceptions Survey Session One: MDAs Session Two: Presentations on Design Assumptions ACSL ACC PNB PROGRAM ASSUMPTIONS WESTERN AREA Edita Jusufu Fofana • The Non Prosecutorial function – should have given the citizens more confidence to report but this is not always the case • Project infrastructure – has been helpful although wit h technical problems. Issue of after hour calls should have been automated. • Anonymity function - has also created some problems particularly with MDA responses • The program initially focused on IMCs at the Headquarters • ACC was left out in major decisions li ke in the identification of CSOs to work with • Financial implications and disbursements from DFID. In the beginning ACC needed approval from DFID to implement activities. There was also the DFID cut on the financial aid. As a result, activities were affecte d. • MDA Response time frame: 2 weeks for MDAs to meet and take administrative actions. This has proved to be a problem

30. poles erected in Go mbu and Kpetema Shellmingo communities; replacement of a total of 40 faulty and 206 new meters in the township of Kenema; and awaiting the supply of 30 new transfers. When this development was disclosed on air people expressed satisfaction and hope that t he momentum will be maintained in the dry season. Also SALWACO and EDSA established customer desks in offices to help provide services. • Like other MDAs, SLP, Ministry of health and sanitation and Education continued to take actions that are in response to reports sent by citizens. • LINK BETWEEN DISTRICT AND NATIONAL IMCS. The PNB Process has facilitated links between district and national IMCs so that there are improved flows of information from district national levels. • MDA ACCOUNTABILITY. Facilitating accountability engagements with MDAs and the public (radio, outreaches and accountability forum). Strides have also been made to expand/increase the number of citizens that are to be involved in PNB activities at project sustainability stage. Communicati ons and outreach with citizens, including media • SUITABILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY STRATEGY. Communication strategy should be acceptable and use widely spoken local language(s). • BRANDING. Brand and package messages to meet public expectations, e.g. emphasis should be on success stories. In Mandu, Upper Bambara (Bomaru) and Dea chiefdoms in Kailahun district when successes stories were shared with citizens, they disclosed to the ACC issues of unfinished projects and backlogs of payments of some teache rs. • FEEDBACK. Feedback/reaction to be allowed through phone in during radio programmes, and during PNB outreach engagements to assess opinions on PNB. Lesson learning by PNB itself At first MDAs used not to attend meetings called by ACC or NMJD, due to fear of being bashed by the public over recorded reports. This was overcome through lobbying and confidence building of MDA leaderships: PNB wants to work with them to develop systems and processes to help build strengths and overcome challenges/ weaknesse s. This worked well but most people preferred ACC to take lead in investigating, and prosecuting perpetrators. Misconceptions of PNB by MDAs at the initial stages: people were not convinced that PNB campaign which is not prosecution/punishment focused would yield positive results. This was overcome through sensitization and promotion of PNB success stories on radio , accountability sessions; community outreach within and outside Kenema district. Once some amount of confidence was built MDAs and other key stakeholders present in localities that were visited by PNB stakeholders participated in the sessions to either se rve as resource person or participant. This

26. Annex Two : Preparations for the Learning and Sharing Meeting PNB Learning and Sharing Meeting: November 2018 Pre - Workshop preparation: Guidelines for District G roups • District groups have been provided with 4 key themes and a series of questions for each theme. They are requested to provide responses to these questions and give an 8 - minute presentation on their responses at the Learning and Sharing Workshop. • PNB CSO Coordinators are requested to contact their ACC counterparts to arrange a mutually convenient time for meeting. Participants in the meeting should include ACC officials who have worked closely with the PNB coordinators and up to 5 animators (those who have demonstrated most competence). • We suggest that the CSO Coordinator act as facilitator for the meeting, and that an additional person is identified to take notes. • The themes should be tackled one by one and the different questions addressed using the p reparation questions sent separately. The facilitator should aim to deepen discussion, and to explore peoples’ ideas rather than to close them down. “Why do you think that?”; “Can you explain?” and “Can you give an example?” are good phrases to use. • On Design: we are very interested in knowing what people would advise doing differently if they were to be involved in designing a programme of this type. What would have improved it? What worked? To what extent can citizens reduce corruption? • On MDAs: we w ould like to know what people have learned from PNB in relation to the most successful tactics to use with MDAs, from grass - roots actions to national strategies. Please give examples. • On Communications: how to ensure that citizens receive, understand and a ct upon messages is an important theme in many programmes. What can we contribute from our PNB experience? Please give examples. • On Lesson Learning: we talk a lot about lesson learning in every programme, but how well did we do in PNB? Did we learn all th at we could have done? Please give examples. • Ensure that animators voices are heard – remember, they have PNB experience from the communities that no - one else knows about. • Notes taken should be detailed. After the end of discussion of each theme, agree key points and comments and prepare the L&S workshop presentation after the preparation meeting, sharing with all participants before the L&S workshop. • The preparation meeting is an opportunity to provide concrete examples and specific narratives about things that worked. Please take notes of these during the meeting and write them up separately at the end.

5. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 2 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Workshop Preparation Before the meeting, district teams were asked to prepare a short presentation around each of the learning themes, highlighting four or five key points around what they had learnt, what worked and what they would do di fferently in future. 2 Day One, Session One: Welcome and Overview Lynda Kerley (PNB Team Leader, ACSL) welcomed everyone on behalf of ACSL and reminded participants that this would be the last ACSL lesson learning workshop. She said that she wanted to cel ebrate the achievements of PNB, investigate its shortcomings and challenge the assumptions implicit in design and implementation . Director Patrick Sandi (ACC Director Communications and Outreach) extended a welcome on behalf of the ACC and the Commissioner , Francis Ben Kaifala . He said this current L&S meeting will inform ACC going forward. He stressed the importance of measuring the impact and assessing the sustainability of PNB component moving forward . Presentations There followed a number of presentat ions to update participants on the latest findings of different PNB exercises. Endline Survey Lynda made a short presentation to inform participants about the findings of the recently carried - out Endline survey. She explained that this was the final large survey exercise for the programme: the midline survey took place in October 2017 and the baseline in 2016. Together, these surveys represent major measurements of citizens perception in relation to progress with the fight against corruption. Lynda explaine d how the survey was carried out 3 and noted that there had been progress against most but not all output and outcome indicators. On the positive side, fewer people claim to have paid a bribe in three out of five PNB focus sectors (power, water, police) but in health and education the numbers appear to have increased. For Outcome Indicators One and Three, the news is more positive: Outcome One exceeded its target by 41 percent in pilot/core districts, and Outcome Three by 36 percent . Figure 1 : PNB Impact Indicator One

32. • The theory of change concept should have been introduced from the inception of the campaign • Special programme be designed by ACC/CSOs to capture success stories • Success stories were shared through account ability fora, radio discussion, hub and spokes and social media. Reasons for not calling 515 • Closure of call centre early affected rural communities. Sometimes, calls redirected instead of responded to and also absence of mobile coverage in large areas. • Wh at could have been done better? • Extend the operation time of call centre and reduce redirecting calls. What could have been done to improve lesson learning by PNB itself? • The exclusion of MDAs in the learning and sharing meetings. • Less number of ACC parti cipants in the learning and sharing meetings. • Lessons learnt were shared through WhatsApp, e - mails and ACC website. • Sustainable elements of the programme are: • 515 toll free phone line, TWG, radio discussion programme, community outreach meetings and MDAs engagement. These are part of the ACC regular engagement and can be easily adapted. • Council partial willingness to absolve some of the activities of the PNB campaign • Delay in some MDAs response to report generated from the portal • Abrupt termination of some critical activities undermines the PNB campaign ACC - CGG, Western Area PNB Lessons Learnt Western Area • IMC roles and responsibilities should have been clearly defined and elaborated. The programme made use of an existing structure but more should have been done in training, bringing on board the strategic leadership of the respective MDAs • Commencing with 6 MDAs was a bit overwhelming. • RTWG group meetings have not been effective in Western area. The Western area rural and u rban roles have not been clearly spelt out. Not much engagement. • Continuous engagements with MDAs in the western area have proved to be the only effective means of getting MDAs to respond • The quarterly media update an effective means of communicating PNB p rogress with the public was stalled along the way. So many reasons can be attributed to this.

37. Annex 5 : Learning and Sharing Meeting Agenda Pay No Bribe: ACC and CSO Sharing and Lesson Learning Meeting Agenda Freetown, 14 th – 15 th November 2018 The Outputs of the meeting will be: • Good practice and lessons learned identified and made available to future activities and programmes • Agreements on post - PNB ways forward for CSOs and ACC staff to work together or separately at district and national levels to continue to share PNB messages and maximise reporting. • Ideas for maximising MDA involvement, accountability and responsiveness in the future. Key Learning Themes • Programme design • Lessons on MDAs and responsiveness • Communications and Outreach with citizens, including media • Lesson learning by PNB itself Two strategic questions: Why was it not possible for PNB to bring about greater levels of public self - reporting? • Wrong strategies? • Incorrect assumptions? • Cultural and social reasons? • Quality of implementation? • External factors Why was it not possible to bring about MDA/IMC engagement? • Wrong strategies? • Incorrect assumptions • Systemic and structural reasons? • Quality of implementation? • External factors

3. CONTENTS / PAY NO BRIBE – CSO L ESSON LEARNING REPOR T C OFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Contents Introduction Participants The Learning and Sharing Agenda 1 1 1 Workshop Preparation The Progress Assessment Surveys Day One Day Two Presentation of Lesson Learning by District Teams District Sustainability Plans 2 4 4 7 10 19 Conclusions Annex 1 - PNB Partners’ views of the Sharin g and Learning Meeting Annex 2 - Preparations for the Learning and Sharing Meeting Annex 3 - District Team Presentations Annex 4 – Other Presentations Annex 5 - Learning and Sharing Meeting Agenda 2 1

2. ABBREVIATION S & ACRONYMS / PAY NO BRIBE – CSO LESSON LEARNING REPORT C OFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Abbreviations and Acron yms ACC Anti - Corruption Commission CARL Centre for Accountability and Rule of Law CGC Campaign for Good Governance CSO Civil Society Organisations DFID United Kingdom Department for International Development EDSA Electricity Distribution and Supply Authority GoSL Government of Sierra Leone IEC Information, Education and Communication IMC Integrity Management Committee MADAM Mankind Activities Development Accreditation Movement MCCU Millennium Challenge Coordinating Unit MDA Ministries, Departments and Agencies MoU Memorandum of Understanding NACS Sierra Leone National Anti - Corruption Strategy NMJD Network Movement for Justice and Development PE Political Education PDT President’s Delivery Team PLWD People Living with Disabilities PNB Pay No Bribe RTWG Local Regional Technical Working Groups SABI Service Delivery in Sierra Leone SALWACO Sierra Leone Water Company SOP Standard Operating Procedures

7. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 4 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • top down accountability structure is created A model should be developed that works for Freetown/Western Area and strengthens capacity and motivation. Figure 3 : MDA reports process for Freetown and Districts Progress Assessment Surveys Martin then provided a short update on the two Progr ess Assessment Surveys which have been carried out since May 2018. A third survey will take place before the end of November 2018. He explained that the name of these exercises had been changed from ‘Mini Perceptions Surveys’ to ‘Progress Assessment Surveys’ on the advice of Statistics Sierra Leone. Each survey is rolled out to 2,250 people, using PNB Animators. Th e surveys cover: • Citizens’ perception of service provider behaviour (Education, Health, SLP) • Citizens’ perception of their own willingness to refuse bribery • Citizens’ perception of the ACCs likelihood of taking action against Bribery • Knowledge of and perce ption of Reporting Mechanisms (515, App, ACC office) • Knowledge of correct fees and services and source of that information In general, the results of the surveys indicate that citizens perceive more improvements in the districts than in Freetown, and sligh tly better results in core districts than in non - core, but only by a few percentage points in the case of the latter. 91% of citizens have knowledge of the 515 - phone number , and 85% think the ACC is more likely to act against corruption now than a year ago . Unfortunately , 47 percent of citizens overall continue to have concerns about the anonymity of PNB reporting, despite all the messages that they have received. Day One, Session Two, Reflecting on Programme Design The aim of this session was to reflect o n which aspects of programme design were strong and worked and which were not so successful and should have been adapted. Presentations All district teams and ACSL gave pre - prepared presentations on the theme of programme design. A C C f i n a l i s e m o n t h l y M D A r e p o r t s a n d s e n d s t o I M C H Q a n d R e g i o n a l o f f i c e s I M C s i n H Q m e e t s t o d i s c u s s r e p o r t a n d s e n d o u t r e q u e s t t o r e s p o n s i s b l e d e p a r t m e n t s o r o f f i c e s L o c a l l e v e l I M C m e e t t o d i s c u s s r e p o r t a n d i d e n t i f y p r e l i m i n a r y r e s p o n s e s I M C H Q r e c i e v e s r e s p o n s e s a n d m e e t s t o f i n a l i s e c o l l a t e d r e s p o n s e 5 t h o f e v e r y m o n t h D e p a r t m e n t s w i t h i n M D A d r a f t r e s p o n s e s a n d s u b m i t s t o I M C H Q A C C h o l d ” R e g i o n a l T e c h n i c a l W G m e e t i n g ” w i t h a l l I M C s , D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s a n d C S O s t o d i s c u s s R e s p o n s e s . A C C t o m i n u t e a n d s h a r e w i t h L o c a l I M C a n d A C C H Q . 1 0 - 1 5 t h o f e v e r y m o n t h 1 5 - 2 0 t h o f e v e r y m o n t h 2 0 t h o f e v e r y m o n t h A C C r e c e i v e s r e s p o n s e 2 5 t h o f e v e r y m o n t h C S O a n d A C C h o l d A c c o u n t a b i l i t y F o r u m s w i t h t h e M D A ’ s d i s c u s s i n g p r o m i s s e d r e s p o n s e s a n d a c t i o n s t a k e n B a s e d o n p r e m i l i n a r y m e e t i n g a n d t h e W G m e e t i n g e a c h d i s t r i c t l e v e l I M C s e n d r e s p o n s e s a n d a c t i o n t o I M C H Q F r e e t o w n p r o c e s s D i s t r i c t p r o c e s s A C C s e n d s t o R e s p o n s e s t o R e g i o n a l M a n a g e r s a n d C S O ’ s

29. ACC - NMJD Kenema THEME PROGRESS AGAINST THEME Programme design WHAT WORKED WELL, WHY AND EFFECTS DEPLOYMENT OF ANIMATORS AT CHIEFDOM LEVELS. Permanent staff/community volunteers deployed in at least chiefdom HQ town to carry out the day to day activities of the project. Chiefdoms that have resident Animators are better informed and engaged in the PNB project than those without. COLLABORATION AND PARTNERSHIP. Collaboration with ACC in planning and co - implementing key project activities like TWG, Accountability sessions H&S worked well. ACC played ke y leadership role in this, as it (ACC) also plays oversight role over MDAs. Thus working with them did lend credence to the process as through them NMJD was able to establish cordial working relationship with targeted MDAs. This established working relatio nship enable us have MDAs take actions on PNB reports that are connected to them. IMC ENGAGEMENTS. It was scrappy in the beginning but worked well later at district level. It has helped MDAS, ACC and CSO’s partner in not only PNB but other activities. The effect has been improved responses. TWG & ACCOUNTABILITY FORUM MEETINGS have worked well to promote responses from MDAs, mechanism to monitor them and account to the public. WHAT DID NOT WORK WELL, WHY AND EFFECTS • Sustainability of MDA actions: reinforcement was not consistent. • Limited commitments to accountability from institutional leaders • No communications between IMCs at district and national levels - was not designed and communicated from the beginning. Has l ed to many actions not communicated to HQ Lessons on MDAs and responsiven ess MDAs: Continue to prosecute/castigate PNB offenders as a problem solving approach rather than working with them has been proposed by most citizens while on the field or on radio. • LOBBYING AND CONFIDENCE BUILDING OF MDAs. To enable them buy in the PNB concept. ACC and NMJD built the confidence of MDAs and assured them that the project is not working against them, but working with them to enhance public service delivery and successf ul implementation of the project. • MDA RESPONSIVENESS. PNB helped MDAs to be responsive to the needs of the people e.g. EDSA recently reported that they have divided Kenema into zones, provided services in more communities, a total of 60 C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d O u t r e a c h e s c o n t . - T h e p r o g r a m d e s i g n d i d n o t e f f e c t i v e l y c a p t u r e s u c c e s s s t o r i e s a s p r o v i s i o n s w e r e n o t m a d e i n t h e r e p o r t i n g t e m p l a t e s f o r c r o s s - c u t t i n g i s s u e s a n d s t o r i e s . - t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f s u c c e s s s t o r i e s a t l o c a l l e v e l w e r e d o n e t h r o u g h c o m m u n i t y s e n s i t i z a t i o n p r o g r a m s , R a d i o p r o g r a m s a n d M D A s e n g a g e m e n t s . - t h e r e w a s a n e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e m e d i a a s t h e y s a w t h e m s e l v e s a s a p i v o t a l p a r t t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e P N B i n t h e r e g i o n ; p l a y i n g o f P N B j i n g l e s d u r i n g p r o g r a m s a n d d i s c u s s i o n s . - t h e p o s t e r s a n d b i l l b o a r d s w e r e t h e b e s t I E C f o r m a t s - S o m e o f t h e r e a s o n s t h e p u b l i c m a d e l e s s 5 1 5 c a l l s a r e : x t h e b o r e d o m f a c e d w h e n c a l l s a r e m a d e t o t h e c a l l c e n t e r x n o t m o r e p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s s e e n t a k e n a g a i n s t d e f a u l t e r s T h e p r o g r a m c o u l d h a v e r e d u c e d t h e n u m e r o u s q u e s t i o n s a t t h e c a l l c e n t e r , c h e c k o n t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e s t a f f a t t h e c e n t e r a n d A C C t o t a k e p r o m p t a c t i o n s o n r e p o r t s m a d e . L e s s o n l e a r n i n g b y P N B - T h e i n i t i a l d e s i g n o f t h e P N B p r o p o s a l w o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e C S O s w h o a r e t h e l o c a l i m p l e m e n t i n g p a r t n e r s o f t h e p r o j e c t . - T h e l e s s o n s u n d e r P N B w e r e c a p t u r e d t h r o u g h j o i n t e n g a g e m e n t s w i t h t h e A C C i n c o m m u n i t i e s - T h e m o s t s u s t a i n a b l e e l e m e n t o f t h e p r o g r a m i s t h e j o i n t e n g a g e m e n t w i t h t h e A C C - T h a t w h i c h h a s n ’ t w o r k e d w e l l i n t h e P N B i s t h a t t h e c a m p a i g n h a d n o p r o s e c u t o r i a l p o w e r s a l l o w i n g t h e M D A s t o m e d d l e w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e c a m p a i g n - M D A s l i n e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m H Q - R e g i o n a l – D i s t r i c t b e e n t o o b u r e a u c r a t i c t h u s l e s s o r n o a c t i o n s t a k e n i n m o s t c a s e s . - S e c t o r h e a d s m o n i t o r e d a n d e m b o w e r e d t o t a k e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m e a s u r e s

31. contributed a lot in enabling NMJD and ACC to get full participation of MDA representatives. Accountability Fora: always preceded by Technical Working Group meetings were a novelty because duty bearers and right holders come together to respond to public concerns about services and commit to addressing concerns. n these sessions key discussion points were always recorded by Journalists and aired on various radio stations ACC - MADAM, Bombali Bombali presentation on ONB sustainability for N ovember learning and sharing meeting Was this the right approach to tackling corruption and were the assumption correct? • Through heighten sensitisation on bribery citizens are unlikely to pay bribe and now demand transparency • People do not see tangible actions taken by MDAs to tackle bribery and are not convinced by anonymity • More citizens didn’t self - report as a result of attitude of call centre staff towards citizens. • Public pressure has made some MDAs develop service charter s: MDAs now issuing receipts for paid services. IMCs of target MDAs are more responsive to PNB reports. • There should be a national policy to compel MDA responsiveness and ACC to invoke compliance sanctions. • It broadens the scope of targeting citizens throu gh involvement and participation and promote a sense of ownership. What needs to happen now to bring about greater levels of MDA engagement? • Continuing MDA participation through RTWGs, AFs, joint radio programmes and joint monitoring exercise. • The participation of local councils in the PNB campaign was weak. • 515 has greater anonymity is is easier to use by citizens • Public reporting through 515 and Report Center to continue to generate monthly data • Increase intra MDA communication through bottom - to p and top - bottom flow. • Hold regular coordination meeting; organize refresher training for IMC focal person on their role and responsibility by ACC and review the composition of IMC. • Poor communication between IMCs and management and lack of structures to e nsure MDA compliance What was the overall effectiveness of the communication and outreach strategy? • This strategy created an opportunity for wider spectrum of public to participate in the PNB campaign • Provided the public feedback on actions taken on acti ons taken. • It raised citizens knowledge on bribery and trigger discussion around the issues of accountability and transparency. What Worked less well? • Forum theatre, few Animators to cover large areas, poor transportation facilities and limited mobile ph one coverage. • Less success stories were captured.

12. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 9 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 The TWGs Radio programs Hub and Spoke Kenema : Facilitating accountability engagements with MDAs and th e public (radio, outreaches and accountability forum) Western : Continuous engagements with MDAs in WA have proved to be the only effective means of getting MDAs to respond What can be done now to maximize IMC national to district to national information f lows? Kono : District meetings plus MDAs informing TWGs of actions from HQ ACC to coordinate the District and National communication flows between IMCs and mount proper monitoring to ensure compliance MDAs to review and revamp their channels of communica tion between HQ and the districts Bombali : Increase intra MDA communication through bottom - top and top - bottom flow. Kenema : The PNB Process should facilitate links between district and national IMCs so that there a flow of information on actions taking fr om the district into the national plan. What could the ACC do differently to bring about IMC engagement a/national b/ district level? Kono : Ensure clear lines of communication between ACC &IMCs at District level. Bombali : Hold regular coordination meeti ng; organize refresher training for IMC focal person on their roles+ responsibilities, review composition of IMC. Bo : MDAs to make the PNB a default program and ensure that internal management systems are guaranteed through effective collaboration with the ACC. ACC to sign MOUs with all MDAs in making the PNB part of the annual activity plan. ACC should be more forceful Western : ACC should support MDAs to take ownership What were the gaps? Kono : Some gaps identified and not addressed.eg. service charters, no receipts for some payments e.g. Koidu govt hospital Communication gap between IMCs at District level and the National level Bombali: IMC representatives in L&S workshops. Kenema : Citizens wanted to see offenders prosecuted/castigated as a problem - solvin g approach rather than working with them.

6. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 3 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Figure 2: Outcome 1, Effectiveness of News Media Figure 2 : Ordinary People Can Make a Difference The ease of reporting a bribe output indicator was positive; however, the targets for listening to information on corruption and/or discussing it with friends and relatives in core districts were missed, although those for non - core districts were achieved. Two unassigned indicators that were included in the midline survey at th e request of the ACC/PDT/MCCU teams were those of ‘citizens reporting decreased levels of corruption’ and ‘citizens believing the government will act on matters of corruption’. The findings for both indicators were positive in both core and non - core distri cts. MDAs, What Worked and What Didn’t Martin Simonsen firs t provided an assessment of MDA reporting process es at both district and HQ levels. He reminded t he participants of the process, which comprises people making reports, the ACC aggregating and shari ng reports, MDAs/IMCs developing responses (at district and HQ levels) and submitting responses to ACC. Local Regional Technical Working Groups (RTWGs) meet monthly to discuss responses. There is no RTWG for Western Area 4 . In relation to this model, ACC R egional Managers having the authority to convene the monthly RTWGs where IMCs are held accountable for following up on responses has worked. Local IMC directly involved in service delivery and peer pressure at the RTWG meetings provides motivation to compl y. At HQ level, however, MDAs engage reluctantly, respond vaguely and seem reluctant to acknowledge challenges. Communication lines are poor between MDA HQs in Freetown and their Regional Offices and strai ned by conflicts over resources - each side blames the other for failures in information flows and accountability. Overall lessons are : • RTWGs at district level provide a model that can be built upon • t here should be an increased ownership of IMCs by MDA management, in order that: • there is an internal dema nd for IMCs to take action • IMCs are properly mandated • IMCs are properly resourced 4 due to responsibilities and mandates being less clear in Western Area

23. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 20 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 After this, teams presented their plans 6 and discussed what was ongoing, what had been completed and what was planned to continue after the official end of the PNB programme. Examples of areas highlighted were: Communication • The 515 - reporting platform will continue to be managed by the ACC and efforts made to improve call centre functioning and increase the number of reports • Citizen sensit isation will continue under the ACC Public Education programmes. • CSO led people/community activism to promote gains/successes of the PNB (CSO Regional Chairs with ACC • Continued engagement with the media through signing of MoUs with key radio networks; • En gage with more local radio stations/media houses for the possible establishment of additional MOUs. • Obtain endorsements from key MDAs working on the PNB Campaign MDAs and IMCs • Strengthening IMCs and supporting them in becoming more functional • Continuing e ngagement with MDAs to strengthen their buy - in to PNB messages and their responses to reports of bribery • Engage MDAs in the new NACS as it is developed • Constant engagement with the key MDA and IMC focal persons, particularly through the RTWGs, and strength en the RTWG in Western Area • Continuing work on Service Charters Partnerships with Councils • Continuing to lobby councils to buy - in to PNB systems and messages • Councils to raise PNB messages at monthly meetings of District and Ward Committee • Councils to att end Accountability Forum and TWG meetings Building Citizens’ Confidence through CSO partnerships • Engagement with different groups of citizens to consolidate partnerships and help spread PNB messages; this would include Market Women, Traders, School Authori ties, Traditional Leaders, Religious Leaders, Youth Groups (Bike Riders, Student Union, etc.), People Living with Disabilities (PLWD) • PNB and non - PNB CSOs to take on PNB messages and include in relevant future programmes and activities (as SABI are doing) • Continue with Accountability Fora to help engage citizens and hold MDAs to account. 6 When finalised, DSPs will be available on the PNB website

42. Session Sixteen Purpose : to share findings across participants, gain broad buy - in make any changes to the prepared commentary on the plans, highlighting two activities that will continue, and what impact is hoped for. Flipcharts from discussions, record all points Donal/Momoh on flipcharts Helen to take notes 15.00 – 15.55 Session Seventeen Presentations of District Sustainability Plans 5 district presentations of 8 minutes ea ch Facilitated discussion in plenary: Q&A of different plans Flipcharts from discussions and Q&A. Record all discussion points Martin/Edita to facilitate Donal/Momoh on flipcharts Helen to take notes 15.55 – 15.40 Session Eighteen Final update of sustainability plans Each district to work as a group to update their sustainability plans in the light of lessons learned from the workshop and comments on their plans. 15.45 – 16.05 Looking at others’ plans Participants to walk around to look at other districts’ plans. One person to stay at each table as a discussant. 16.05 – 16.40 Session Nineteen Closing PNB and taking the fight against corruption forwards Closing speeches from ACC, Coffey, and CSOs, emphasising what can continue and be built on Plenary Flipcharts: What we will continue doing Donal/Momoh on flipcharts Helen to take notes

4. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 1 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Introduction The November Pay No Bribe Learning and Sharing Workshop was the fifth to be held since August 2017. As Anti - Corruption Support to Sierra Leone programme ends in December 2018, it was also the last. The purpose of the meeting was to bring memb ers of the Anti - Corruption Commission’s (ACC) National and R egional offices together with CSO partners to learn lessons from experiences in the programme, and through the District Sustainability plans 1 , to identify how key elements of the programme c ould c ontinue into the future. The meeting lasted for two days. The o utputs of the meeting were: • Good practice and lessons learned identified and made available to future activities and programmes • Agreements on post - PNB ways forward for CSOs and ACC staff to wor k together or separately at district and national levels to continue to share PNB messages and maximise reporting. • Ideas for maximising MDA involvement, accountability and responsiveness in the future. The o utputs of the sharing meeting were: • Progress with District Sustainability Plans shared for all five districts • Key successes identified, shared and discussed. • Challenges identified and addressed • Priority actions identified and incorporated into all plans September – December 2018 Participants A total of 25 people participated in the 2 - day workshop. Officials from ACC national headquarters with responsibilities for Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), Public Education (PE) and Monitoring and Compliance attended along with ACC Regional Managers and Public Education officials from the Bo, Bombali, Kenema and Kono regional offices. Communications Director Patrick Sandi attended both days. PNB CSO coordinators from each of the five PNB core districts attended. These were: Campaign for Good Governance (C GG, responsible for Western Area Rural and Urban); Centre for Accountability and Rule of Law (CARL, responsible for Bo); Mankind Activities Development Accreditation Movement (MADAM, responsible for Bombali) and the Network Movement for Justice and Develop ment (NMJD, responsible for Kenema and Kono). ACSL representatives comprised the Team Leader, the, the Project Support Officer, the Programme Manager and the M&E Adviser. The programme was facilitated by the M&E Adviser, the Technical Adviser, the ACC P N B Programme manager and the ACC Communications Director. Learning and Sharing Agenda The agenda was structured around four learning themes and two strategic questions. The learning themes were the following: • Programme design • Lessons on MDAs and respons iveness • Communications and Outreach with citizens, including media • Lesson learning by PNB itself And the strategic questions: • Why was it not possible for PNB to bring about greater levels of public self - reporting? • Why was it not possible to bring about MDA /IMC engagement? 1 Prepared at the third Learning and Sus tainability meeting in Bo in April 2018

18. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 15 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • What can be done to convince the public that it is safe to report to PNB and the ACC? • What can be done to capture detailed, relevant and catchy stories of PNB su ccesses? • What can be done to ensure more coverage of PNB by the media (radio and print)? Each group also answered all the questions around self - reporting: Why it was not possible for PNB to bring about greater levels of public self - reporting? Was it: • Wron g strategies? • Incorrect assumptions? • Cultural and social reasons? • Quality of implementation? • External factors? Day Two, Session Twelve: Presentations of Group Work on Communications and Outreach The purpose of this session was to identify and agree good Co mmunications and Outreach practice. Each group reported back on the question they had discussed, and all groups presented their thinking on the self - reporting questions. The self - reporting questions are presented in table format below. Group One: Two Most Cost - Effective Communications Formats and Why? Group One emphasised the importance of working with people and media that can spread messages. They stated that Radio and Mass sensitisation by animators were the two most effective formats, and the reasons fo r this were as follows: Radio • Feedback from radio programmes is immediate or very quick • Radio covers a wider geographical range (e.g. Bonthe) • Getting PNB messages into current affairs programme is free of charge Mass Sensitisation • Meetings are held in t heir respective locations • Cost free or minimal fund utilisation as animators are already paid for • Some target groups (e.g. market women) help in transmitting the messages Group Two: What Can Be Done to Convince/Inspire the Public to Report to the PNB? Gro up Two considered different ways of inspiring the public to report. They felt that the animators were an asset because they are able to talk directly to people and allay fears. They stated that the story gathering had not been effective because animators w ere not trained to capture stories , also recognising that CSOs had not requested training . Group Three: What can be done to convince the public that it is safe to report to PNB and the ACC? Group Three identified a number of strategies to convince the pu bli c that reporting to PNB is safe: • Religious and Traditional leaders could be appointed as PNB Ambassadors to take messages to the communities • Use community structures – provide a phone per chiefdom. Animators are not part of existing structures so shou ld only be used in the bigger towns • Use testimonies by influencers to spread messages, either traditional people or celebrities • PNB programme was not able to clear up confusion between different methods of reporting – anonymous vs non - anonymous and what can kind of reports ca n be made. The programme did not communicate this clearly .

13. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 10 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Martin commented on the MDA presentations, highlighting two successes and two challenges Firstly, district MDAs engage in RTWGs, ‘ maybe ’ because local ACC regional managers have more status. The lesson learned from was engagement with MDAs needs to be undertaken with sufficient levels of authority - ACC needs to be more assertive. Secondly, actions have been taken by MDAs at district levels. He su ggested MDA representatives who engage are managers with status w ho can order things to be done . He pointed out that this is different in Freetown/Western Area, where there are too many players with competing status. The lesson learnt is that RTWGs should continue and PNB data should continue to be presented, and distr ict IMCs have authority. Thirdly, Martin stated that IMCs at HQ level reluctantly engage and respond vaguely and irregularly. He suggested this was because the IMCs in Freetown do not have the mandate to engage and are receiving mixed messages from their b osses. Therefore, PNB mandates and messages come from senior officials and are seen to come from ‘ senior people ’ . Fourthly, Martin pointed out that District - HQ relationships are weak and are strained by conflicts over resources and blame games to shift res ponsibility , rather than motivated to address the problems. At HQ level there is a general culture of silence and IMCs do not want to commit themselves. He suggested that MDAs should take ownership and should be mandated and resourced to carry ou t research into issues that PNB data is highlighting. Day One, Session Five: Group work on MDA issues Participants broke into five mixed groups comprising regional and HQ ACC staff, CSO, and ACSL representatives to discuss MDA issues against preparation questions noted above under Session Four, page 11. Each group took one question only and prepared flip charts of discussion points that they put on the wall. Each group walked around and looked at each other’s flipcharts. The main points are presented below. 5 Figur e 7 : Main Points on MDA Group Work Group One What worked in building responsiveness in MDAs (some or all) in PNB? • Ensure IMCs have mandates and MDAs are accountable • ACC to ensure compliance • Introduce penalties for non - comp liant M DAs • Engage with vice president’s/chief minister who will in turn mandate his ministers Group Two What didn’t work so well in building responsiveness • Political will • National to district level ownership by the MDAs of IMC processes (top – down) • Frequent staff movements • Communication of information

15. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 12 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • For a number of reasons, political attitude s towards PNB worsened as PNB implementation progressed . To mitigate, the PNB team requested regular steering committee meetings which were not fully owned by the then Chief of Staff. This should have escalated PNB to a national level, but it did not do so . • In recent months, political engagement has improved , and this is be ing exploited to increase support and ownership of PNB. • After the election, the office of the Chief of Staff was abolished, and the MCCU had no home. This provided a strategic opportun ity for PNB to develop a different way of working with senior levels of government . The team moved quickly and developed a strategy whereby PNB report s to the Office of the Vice President and the Secretary of State in that office. This is a positive chang e and is expected to provide the necessary supervisory authority and mandate for work with MDAs. • Participants suggested that coordination between HQ IMCs and District IMCs should perhaps also sit in the Office of the Vice President? • As has been noted in ot her sessions, structural obstacles impeded implementation of the PNB. These comprised: o No form of communication between district and HQ, which led to bottlenecks, especially with SALWACO and EDSA o The fact that the Freetown/district divide existed meant th at there was always an external stakeholder to blame • In order to overcome these , robust measures are required : o Proper structures with clear mandates from IMC HQs to district levels o Responsibility for implementing PNB measures to be included into MDA emplo yees’ job descriptions o PNB implementation to be integrated into IMC ToR through the updated NACS o MDA leaders to identify individual committed staff members who should be permitted to stay in post rather than constantly moved on. • A number of external fact ors were also identified as having impeded progress: o The programme not being launched until 2016, partly due to Ebola o Political turbulence around PNB implementation and through out the 2018 election period o High rates of staff turnover in ACSL and in the ACC o Limited motivation on the part of IMCs o Legal restrictions At this point, participants were encouraged to walk around and view the different outputs of group discussions displayed on the walls. It was decided to end the day’s programme at this point and to hold over Session 7 to the following day, where it became Session Eleven. Day One, Session Seven: Presentation of Pre - prepared ideas on Communications and Outreach The p urpose of this session was to share learning around district teams on Communications and Outreach. District teams presented five key achievements of the Communications and Outreach strategy, responding to the following questions: • What worked best in informing citizens about bribery, and what worked less well? • What can and should continue? • How well did the programme capture success stories? What could have been done differently? • How well did the programme disseminate/share success stories? What could have been done differently?

22. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 19 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • ACC should make provision for CSOs to continue with PNB • Ensure lessons are incorporated into design of new projects • Work with institutions to bui ld their confidence to engage on PNB • MDA misunderstood PNB concept; needed training to understand. • Importance of local owners hip and having buy - in from MDAs • PNB should have developed district council buy - in and support from the beginning • MDAs should hav e been involved from inception ACC/MADAM BOMBALI Lessons • Exclusion of MDAs in pre implementation and core project activity was a mistake • Full council engagement in PNB should have been encouraged • PNB needs tangible actions on the ground to boost self - repo rting • Poor communication between the IMC district - HQ affected responses • Abrupt closure of crucial PNB activities due to DFID funding cuts • Sustainable elements: • 515 • RTWG • Radio • MDA engagement ACC/CGG WESTERN URBAN/RURAL Lessons • Roles and responsibilities of IMCs should have been clearly identified from the beginning • IMCs should have been offered more training/ induction before 2016 • An RTWG was not s et up in Western Area by ACC as there was no clear understanding of roles and mandates. • MDAs require cont inuous follow up of responses. • The quarterly media update provided an effective means of disseminating information on PNB progress • There should have further brainstorming and preparation on publicising PNB successes • Elections have been disruptive Gener al Points Martin asked about the extent to which MDAs included or excluded in planning and implementation? Patrick responded by saying that when PNB was conceived even the ACC did not know what was happening. DFID sent the concept to the ACC, ACC raised is sues and responded to DFID. There was no consultation on strategies. Sessions Fifteen, Sixteen and Seventeen: District Sustainability Plans Introduction to District Sustainability Plans William Kamanda and Martin introduced the session. Martin pointed out that every district had a district plan that beg a n in April 2018 and revisited in August 2018. He challenged district teams to think about the usefulness of the plans and whether or not they were something that was being used and implemented. William enco uraged the teams to think about implementation and suggested that ACC should take the lead as the constant PNB partner.

40. 8 mins each group + comments by ACSL Plenary. Comments, but no discussion 15.40 – 16.20 Session Eight Group work on Comms/outreach issues 5 x Mixed groups of District, CSO, ACC and ACSL staff discuss Comms/Outreach issues against preparation questions. Mixed groups: all participants randomly assigned to 5 groups Flipcharts: key responses & recommendati ons from each group, plus 2 specific examples of successful outreach and comms approaches per group (with evidence) 16.20 – 16.40 Session Nine Sharing findings Participants walk around to discuss different groups’ outputs posted on the wall. One person to explain in each case End of Day One DAY TWO 8.30 – 8.35 Energiser 8.35 – 8.50 Day Two, Session Ten Conclusions From Yesterday Purpose : to introduce the day and remind people of what was agreed Short plenary/powerpoint of key conclusions/ideas. Q&A What do people remember? Emerging conclusions Key points on PPT and displayed on Flipcharts around room Helen to facilitate 08.50 – 09.30 Session Eleven Presentations of group work on Outreach/ Comms work Purpose : to identify and agree good Comms/outreach practice One person from each group to present conclusions from group discu ssions. 7 minutes per group, short Q&A Plenary short Q&A, short discussion Flipcharts from presentations plus any notes from Q&A Examples to be noted separately Patrick/Ewoku to facilitate Helen to take notes Donal/Momoh on flipcharts

14. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 11 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Group Three What can (and should) continue • The role of the local ACC office to monitor IMC actions. • Capacity building of IMCs Group Four What can be done to maximise IMC information flows • Build internal dem and for information for IMC accountability • Managers to ensure that tasks are covered • Managers to be held responsible for proper record keeping Group Five What could the ACC do differently to bring about IMC engagement a/ national level b/ district lev el • Ministers, permanent secretaries and their representatives engage at district levels to integrate PNB into performance contracts • ACC to ensure regular monitoring of MDAs implementation of actions taken • To invoke the relevant provisions in the ACC act s uch as non - compliance, sanctions, sections 8 and 57 of the ACC act. Day One, Session Six: Making MDA Discussion M ore Strategic A im of this discussion was to arrive at strategic conclusions about MDA engagement and tackling constraints. The following que stions were posed under the general question of ‘ Why did greater MDA/IMC engagement not happen?’ • Wrong strategies? • Incorrect assumptions? • Systemic and structural reasons? • Quality of implementation? • External factors? A discussion ensued: • Edita opened the di scussion by reporting that Ministers and Permanent Secretaries were not involved or included in early PN B discussions, meaning that strategies were not owned by them from the outset. Roles and responsibilities were unclear and buy - in was vague . There shoul d have been more detail included in initial arrangements to answer the ‘who, what and where’ questions. • P olitical engagement from the beginning is important and encouraging deputy ministers to have supervisory functions in relation to IMC work could be a useful strategy. • Role of local councils and local authorities : MDAs responsibilities have been devolved to councils and there was an expectation that councils would help oversee and monito r. For that to happen, councils should have been more engaged on bu dgets, planning, monitoring and follow up of activities from the beginning: this did not happen. • A question was asked about the existence of a strategy specifying MDA engagement . T his was developed along with a Theory of Change for MDAs and an SOP documen t. It should be adapted to focus more on the quality and implementation of MDA responses rather than the number of reports. • Management of MDAs is critical. There was a (flawed) assumption that MDAs were PNB partners and as such would receive the data and s et to work through the IMCs to address the issues. This did not happen, and the situation was further complicated by a lack of public sensitisation on the roles and functions of the IMCs. • Alongside PNB partners (ACC, ACSL, CSOs) the Office of the President and the Office Chief of Staff were identified at beginning as having important roles to play. Their involvement diminished over time, however, and the expected leverage was not provided. This was a critical gap.

34. MDAs WHAT WORKED • Continuous engagements - Apart from general meeting the ACC/COFFEY held one on one meetings with IMCs • Involving the man agement of the respective institutions • Combined radio and television programs • Development of new strategies to enhance MDA responsiveness WHAT DID NOT WORK WELL • MDA slow or no response. Judiciary still outstanding • MDA responses lacking in depth Session Four, Presentation on MDA Performance MDAs What worked? What did not work? 1 . What worked? Local MDAs meet regularly for RTWG Why did it work? The ACC Regional Managers commands authority and Local IMCs comply • The Local IMCs could relate to the purpose of the PNB as they are directly involved in service delivery Lessons Engaging effectively with MDAs rely on: Sufficient authority MDAs most experience it as relevant. 2 . What worked? Local actions are taken Why did it work? Lo cal level IMCs are in a position to take specific actions, as they directly manage the service delivery The local levels IMCs are (in the RTWG) accountable to the other MDAs present, who applies per to per pressure Lessons The RTWG is – on a district level – a model that should continue 3 . What did not work? HQ MDAs engage reluctantly – and responds vaguely and irregularly Why did it not work? HQ IMCs did not experience demands by their management, but is solely driven by external pressure from the ACC HQ IMCs appear concerned of acknowledging challenges and taking actions, as it may be ill received by the management of the MDAs Lessons For HQ IMCs to function, they need to internally demand driven – and that demand should come from the top management of t he MDA. What did not work? HQ – District relations weak and both parties shows limited commitment strengthening them (except for SLP). Why did it not work? HQ – District relations are strained by conflicts over resources and blame games” Lessons The MDAs management must instruct the IMCs on HQ and district level to deliver and track their actions. 5 . What did not work? MDA Responses and Actions on both HQ and District level are unspecific and vague Why did it not work? The PNB data does highlight specifi c problems, but areas of concern. Hence providing specific responses demands intermediary actions from the IMCs to identify causes. IMC did not want to commit themselves to actions that might cause internal problem. General culture of silence

21. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 18 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • Animators were moved to centres with higher populations in October 2017 when it was realised that they weren’t reaching enough people • In October 2017, the Hub and Spokes Strategy was l aunched to address PNB scale - up across the country in a situation where there were no ACC offices in the new districts and where finances were limited. • Hub and Spokes strategy was adapted to District L evel when it was realised that there were areas withi n the core districts that were receiving less attention • To strengthen impact and consolidate resources, it was agreed to carry out joint ACC/CSO outreach activities. • In April 2018, District teams each developed their own District Sustainability Plan at the April Learning and Sharing workshop in Bo . The plans were subsequently reported on and updated at the August and November Learning and Sharing workshops • Contacts were made with the DFID - funded SABI programme and others to maximise CSO outreach through their activities. • When collecting success stories didn’t work, CSO coordinators were trained in story gathering and provided with a template to collect the information. Since then, upwards of 100 templates have been completed by animators and are being co nverted into stories . • DFID requested piloting the use of tablets to provide PNB information in ‘hole in the wall’ facilities in three districts. After three months, the pilot demonstrated that the tablets were not being used, and they were withdrawn . • In o rder to strengthen local MDA accountability, RTWGs were introduced in the districts. These helped to bring about improvements in MDA responses everywhere except Freetown/Western Area, where mandates are less clear. • To strengthen the capacity of journalists to research cases of bribery and corruption, an investigative journalism training course was developed and undertaken . Mentoring to participants is still ongoing. Presentation of Lesson Learning by District Teams ACC/NMJD Kono Lessons • MDA actions and resp onses should have been followed up by ACC , not left with MDAs • Reporting platform should be sustainable as it is cost free • Programme design had built in challenges • Citizens had only limited knowledge of free services at the beginning ACC/CARL BO Lessons • C SOs should have been consulted in the design of the programme • Joint engagement with ACC has been successful • The PNB needed direct prosecutorial capacity or powers to sanction offenders. • Communications were a challenge: there were bottlenecks in district/ regional/MDAs • Sector heads have no responsibility to take actions viz the judiciary ACC/NMJD KENEMA Lessons

10. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 7 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • Self - reporting depends on citizens’ confidence levels , which are growing • Animators are important because they also encourage people to turn to local authorities, which are more trusted. • Challenges with the call centre (e.g. long waiting times, claims of staff rudeness) have helped to dissuade some people fro m reporting Patrick Sandi (ACC Director of Communications) and Edita Usufu Fofana (ACC PNB Lead ) summed up the session. Edita made a number of points: • She reminded participants that the non - prosecutorial function was critical to design , but there had be en lethargy and a lack of understanding of the function in early implementation. MDAs thought that ‘non - prosecutorial’ meant that there would be no follow up actions. • She also stated that there had been technical problems with the call centre that had cr eated some problems. The infrastructure has improved, and staff have had additional training. There were and are issues with the MDAs over anonymity. MDAs want to know names so that they intervene directly with the perpetrators. Further work is needed to h elp MDAs work with the information to pinpoint departments and problem areas but still retain anonymity. • IMC functioning at HQ level continues to be challenging. • ACC was left out of major decision - making in the design process; it provided no inputs into CS O identification and whether or not they were the right ones for the tasks in hand. • Financial disbursement from DFID to ACC was very slow earlier in implementation , when the ACC had to provide a detailed justification to DFID for any financial expenditure; this proved to be very slow, but it did improve. • The arbitrary removal by DFID of the r emaining Financial Aid Budget in March 2017 was a shock to the ACC . ACC has been able to move forward with some financial support from ACSL. • S upport to MDAs is importan t and will continue to be. MDA response time was and is slow, and efforts have been made to improve this. How can PNB activities be integrated into NACS reporting going forward? • There is a need to adjust more to the rhythms and concerns of the MDAs and to explore in more depth what will work, and how do the ACC and MDAs move forward. The current SOP may be too ambitious. Patrick reiterated Edita’s points, particularly in relation to the ACC’s lack of involvement in PNB design. He pointed out that had the A CC participated in the development of the mobile app for reporting cases of petty bribery, they could have helped to improve the questionnaire. He also pointed out that: • Issues with PNB Call Centre infrastructure and after - hours calls have been addressed. A robust system is needed for calls, and instructions must be clear. • The judiciary and the police are interlocked, and reports should be acted upon in the round. Day One, Session Four, Presentations on MDAs: Achievements and Challenges The p urpose of thi s session was to present thinking to date on MDAs and to arrive at conclusions about strengthening MDA engagement. District Teams gave their pre - prepared presentations on MDAs, answering the questions: • What worked in building responsiveness in MDAs (some or all) in PNB? • What didn’t work so well? • What can (and should) continue (give specific examples and narratives)? • What can be done now to maximise IMC national – district – national information flow • What could the ACC do differently to bring about IMC en gagement a/ national level b/ district level

11. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 8 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 The points made in the presentations are represented in the table below. Figure 5 : MDAs, What Worked and What Didn't Question What worked well What did not work well What worked well i n building responsiveness in MDAs (some or all) in PNB? Kono : MDAs cooperation in attending PNB meetings. Cordial working relationship with all MDAs. Submission of proposals and actions Bombali : Continuing MDA participation through the TWG meeting, Accou ntability Fora, joint radio discussion programmes and joint monitoring exercise. Kenema : Lobbying and confidence building of MDAs to enable them buy in the PNB concept. PNB helped MDAs to be responsive to the needs of the people Bo : Compliance at various levels ensuring that sustainable actions taken e.g. rotation of Police personnel; transfer requests for defaulting teachers; transfer of nurses from U5 to Triage to reduce sales of FHC drugs etc. Continuous engagement between Management and personnel/staff were as a result of the Accountability Forums, Hub and Spokes visits, TWGs, Community meetings, Radio programs . Western : Martin and Edita had meetings with IMCs, also with management. Combined radio and tv – working as a team, had discussions with hea ds Developed new strategies to improve MDA responsiveness. Kono : Some actions not sustained. Different IMC representatives in TWG and AF meetings Bombali : Local council participation was weak. Poor communication between IMCs and management, also lack of overarching institutions to ensure MDA compliance Kenema : Citizens wanting to prosecute/ castigate PNB offenders as a problem - solving approach rather than working with them : Bo : Only mild punishment given to defaulters, e.g. teachers transferred from one school are found teaching in other schools; Police personnel found wanting after transfer are sometimes kept in the same Division Western : Judiciary responses lacking. Not functional Not participating well in IMCs. Need to escalate within ACC MDA respons es weak and lacking detail How to mainstream PNB into MDA work Figure 6 : Other Aspects of MDA Engagement To what extent was it correct to assume that greater MDA responsiveness to public reports /complaints would lead to higher l evel of public self - reporting especially through 515? Kono : MDAs to take visible and sustained actions on citizens report(s) to motivate higher reporting Bombali : 515 has greater anonymity is easier to use by citizens Kenema : PNB helped MDAs to be respo nsive to the needs of the people What can (and should) continue (give specific examples and narrative)? Kono : Monitoring on MDAs for compliance and the use of the reporting platform. Some Citizens prefer to use the platform than to come to ACC Office to report because it is cost free Bombali : Public reporting through 515 and Report Centre continuing to generate monthly data Bo : The Accountability forums

9. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 6 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 shou ld have been included ii) Pressure on MDAs + some changes Bombali X Call centre problems X i) Some MDAs have service charters and are issuing receipts ii) IMCs of target MDAs more responsive iii) Promotion of sense of ownership among citizens iv) Citizens less likely to pay bribes Western X X ACC had limited input into choice of e.g. CSOs i) Continuous engagements with MDAs in the western area proved to be the only effective means of getting MDAs to respond Questions and Answers on Design Issues There were a number of questions after each presentation, which provoked rich discussion. Question : Why were MDA actions not sustainable? • Answers: ACC need more resources to ensure compliance and accountability; there was a l imited focus on compliance from the beginning; MDAs should have acted but they behaved with impunity; the ACC was limited by programme design Question : Why are CSOs the right partner? • Answer: Y es, their presence complemented the work of the ACC Question: How did things work in relation to improving transparency? • Answers : MDA representatives attend RTWG and the ACC monitors follow up actions; when sector heads are at the same meeting they help keep each other accountable, and commitments made at meetings ar e largely adhered to • Not much has changed with SLP; closer cooperation is needed but the bike riders have become active in challenging check points; sometimes the SLP are not aware themselves of new checkpoints until the ACC makes them aware. Question: MDA s are reporting actions, but people are not seeing actions on the ground. Why? • Answers: there is no overarching institution to invoke MDA compliance; local authorities have the mandate to ensure MDA compliance, but they were not included in PNB design . Dis trict sustainability plans aim to address this issue • Partners are saying similar things: public pressure has grown but is not e nough to ensure compliance: Theory of Change assumptions were incorrect • Animators largely worked well and helped to deal with som e citizens’ apprehensions, but there was no prescribed way of enforcing MDA compliance and/or addressing non - compliance. • IMC engagements in the design helped , but communication links between district and national levels did not work; it’s been challenging to establish the links, as the formal relationships set up didn’t function properly. • RTWG meetings have helped to reinforce accountability and have ensured some action on the ground Question: CSOs saying Animator deployment worked well, BUT how can we say this when citizens have not been reporting on their own? • Answers: there were significant levels of apprehension at the beginning over roles and responsibilities of ACC ; CSOs gave people some confidence.

20. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 17 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Cultural and social reasons? Petty bribery not necessarily viewed as an offence but accepted as normal practice in communities Culture of silen ce Social bonds between people: can’t tell tales Traditional practices + beliefs Politics Rural women do not feel entitled to make reports Kinship, Ethnicity, Regionalism, politics etc Rural women don’t want to report – tell men to do it. Citizens lack confidence to self - report Quality of implementation? Prompt actions and responses are sometimes lacking Call centre staff responses to callers can be off hand and dismissive Too much attention on the intellectuals Quality of MDA responses and act ions ACC/CSO cooperation not facilitated at first Finance cuts (DFID and ACSL) limited outreach ACSL delays with ICE/CSO payment Reporting system not automated - Challenges with networks Partnership between CSO and ACC weak at first MDA buy - in Managem ent of IMCs/MDA communication barriers within IMCs - IMC bureaucratic bottlenecks Funding of ACC PE team to release success stories Actions taken by MDAs were not publicise/bring to the public domain Lack of sustainability of actions taken by MDAs Lack of prompt response from MDAs External factors? Gaps in legislation of compliance Questions and Clarifications The following questions and clarifications were raised : • The call centre still not totally working in the way that it is meant to . • Anonymity is still a major issue • PNB has made strides with using local languages: it is challenging but it has to be done • Schools should be more clearly identified in the reporting process. Martin responded that the reporting platform is being reviewed but locatio n is tricky: there are more than 1000 PHUs and 1000 schools, and it can’t be done in audio. • Martin also asked how participants rated the contribution that the animators made. Was this the correct strategy, and did they receive enough support? Day Two, Ses sions Thirteen and Fourteen: Lesson Learning by PNB The purpose of this session was to share presentations on Lesson Learning by PNB partners. Introduction by ACSL Lynda introduced the session and highlighted the ways in which the PNB programme had demonst rated learning and adaptability, especially over the last 18 months.

39. 13.05 – 13.15 Energiser 13.15 – 14.00 45 mins Session Five Group work on MDA issues 5 x Mixed groups of District, CSO, ACC and ACSL staff discuss MDA issues against pre - prepared questions. 5 Working Groups 10 mins walk around group flip charts Flipcharts on key discussion points . Sep arate flipcharts with specific examples 14.10 – 14.45 35 mins Session Six Facilitated discussion on MDA issues Plenary discussion: making the MDA thinking more strategic. Why was it not possible to bring about greater MDA/IMC engagement? • Wrong strategies? • Incorrect assumptions? • Systemic and structural reasons? • Quality of implementation? • External factors? Plenary Helen to take notes Donal/Momoh to prepare flipcharts Martin and Edita to facilitate 14.45 – 15.40 Session Seven Prepared presentations on Outreach and Comms work Purpose : to share thinking from all districts on Comms and outreach across all participants. Brief intro on Outreach assumptions – Lynda Presentation of five key achievements on overall effectiveness of the Communications and Outreach Strategy? • What worked best in informing citizens about bribery, and what worked less well? • What can and should continue? • How well did the programme capture success stories? What could have been done differently? • How well did the programme disseminate/share success stories? Why weren’t we able to do this better? What could have been done differently? • How effective were the different relationships with the media (press briefings, radio journalists, radio shows etc.)? • Which information formats worked best and why? • What are the reasons for the public not calling 515 and what could have been done by the programme to improve the situation? • What were the gaps? • Were we innovative enough? • Were we adaptable/flexible enough? Why was it not possible for PNB to bring about greater levels of public self - reporting? Flipchart: key Comms/Outre ach comments from Districts Helen to take additional notes Facilitated by Patrick and Ewoku Donal/Momoh to do flipcharts

16. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 13 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 • How effective were the different relationships with the media (press briefings, radio journalists, radio shows etc.)? • Which information formats worked best and why? • What are the reasons for the public not calling 515 and what could have been done by the programme to improve the situation? • What were the gaps? Lynda in troduced the session by emphasising the high numbers contac ted through outreach up to now - o ver 100,000 citizens . She said that the logframe indicators had been met for outreach , as well as for numbers of 515 calls and mobile app reports. She pointed out that one of the assumptions in Communications and Outreach work was if knowledge and access to knowledge are improved then would bring about behaviour change. Thinking that knowledge about making 515 calls could underpin sustainability however, proved to b e over - optimistic. She asked participants why this was? She also highlighted the fact that citizens are nervous about reporting neighbours and/or other community members , which, combined with deep public scepticism about Government doing anything to challe nge corruption, has meant that there is limited enthusiasm to report examples of small payments. Citizens’ perceptions of government commitment have not been challenged by stories of citizens’ experiences of positive change and/or MDA actions and improveme nts because these stories were never collected by the CSOs and MDAs. Ewoku Andrew then presented the thinking of the ACC’s Communications and Outreach Department on behalf of Patrick Sandi. He stated that analysis of radio outputs indicated that they had worked well, including the vox pops and jingles. Some events had been live - streamed. The IEC materials (posters, wristbands, billboards etc.) had also been popular. The things that Ewoku stated hadn’t worked as well were the following: • Media releases – t he information for these from the MDAs arrives late or is incoherent • The ‘Message of the Month’ strategy failed because the MDAs didn’t send success stories • Using Atunda Ayende (Talking Drum studios) didn't work • Using different dialects and languages is ch allenging, but the ACC should adopt regional languages in the future. • Ewoku identified the gaps: o Continuing confusion over anonymity o Not being able to collect stories of change As the DFID FA was removed, there was n o construction of an audio booth in the Communications and Outreach office . Coffey eventually funded this in August 2018 . Each District team then presented their own analysis of Communications and Outreach achievements, which are summarised in the table below. Figure 8 : CSO Analyses of Communications and Outreach WA Bombali Kono Kenema Bo Achievements Success stories worked well eventually X Good relations with media X X X X Better radio programmes X Made people more aware - community animation X Feedback sessions on actions taken X HSS worked well X X X X IMC meetings Accountability Fora X

19. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 16 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 Group Four: What Can be Done to Capture Detailed, Relevant and Catchy Stories of PNB Successes? Group Four had a number of observations in relation t o capturing PNB Success St ories: • Public Education messages should incentivise people to share success stories – use culture norms to build motivation • Use videos or voice recordings to document stories in the field • Use examples e.g. pregnant women to spread success messages • Use case studies to motivate other citizens to share success stories • Conduct sensitisations in local languages • Develop a structured approach – manage ACC officials to work with IMCs to honour their mandate so success stories are possible • MDAs should provide noticeboards and use WhatsApp groups to disseminate and share their own success stories • Use ministers to share success stories to motivate citizens to share with ACC offices • Network between ACC and MDA/IMC to enhance collaboration and solidify communicat ion links • Get support from political elites • Establish anonymous drop in boxes Group Five: What can be done to ensure more coverage of PNB by the media (radio and print)? Group Five contributed their ideas for strengthening PNB coverage by the media. • Buil d partnerships with media institutions/sign MOUs • Train media practitioners in PNB and in spreading PNB messages • Extend invitations to the media for coverage of different events • Buy newspaper space for PNB advertisements • Simulcast broadcasts for radio sta tions on PNB programmes; these could include ACC hour, accountability sessions, community meetings, radio shows, radio discussions etc. • Provide incentives for investigative journalism on PNB issues • Provide airtime for jingles, public notices, press release s etc. • Increase the number of radio programmes for CSOs Figure 9 : Why Self - Reporting Didn't Happen Reasons Group One Group Two Group Three Group Four Group Five Wrong strategies? Citizens are not convinced about anonymity, and wer e not reassured Promotion of mobile app reporting created culture of reliance Story gathering was ineffective PNB initially FT focused. Regions and ACC regional offices left out including district IMCs Replacing forum theatres or expensive outreach for more radio shows or posters Support of political elite to collect stories and disseminate success of PNB didn’t happen Weak administration measures Lack of prosecutorial power of the PNB Call centre challenges Few prompt responses from MDAs Incorrec t assumptions? Having information = will report was wrong Assumed no public cynicism and doubts, but public confidence lacking PNB assumed to be external to ACC to start with Assumed IEC material and PE was enough to motivate people to self – report PNB had political backing People assumed calls not anonymous Issues of referrals Citizens didn’t trust anonymity

8. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 5 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 ACSL ACSL began by looki ng at the Theory of Change assumptions that underpinned PNB design and what happened in practice. Firstly, it was assumed that Ministry ownership would drive IMC and change processes. • This did not happen. Levels of political and ministry ownership were lo w, which led to weak engagement of IMCs, repetitive reporting, and inadequate, weak information flows between national and district levels. • Lesson: Ministries should have been involved in design and engaged from the start. • Change needs top down demand fr om senior government, down to departments. There was a belief that increased IMC engagement would lead to more actions in response to public reporting. Actions would be shared, increasing public confidence to self - report. • This did not happen: whilst animat ors took large numbers of mobile app reports and encouraged citizens to report, the public re mains deeply sceptical about 515 anonymity and the willingness of MDAs to address the problem. • Did PNB identify the right strategies to address these s trategic MD A constraints? Yes, late in day but i t couldn’t have happened sooner due to political context . Animation would stimulate discussion and increase reporting levels; public pressure would lead to change; and the programme would capture and disseminate storie s about changes • Lesson: There is a significant gap between sustained outreach and the ability of the programme to capture and share stories of change/success. • Impact on sustainability: increased knowledge does not directly lead to behaviour change and cha nge processes are more complex than the programme accounted for ; the original theory of change was too simplistic Strong communica tions on PNB programme design/citizen stories/ MDA actions in public domain, would all build public confidence to report • The pr ogramme didn’t produce useable citizen success stories at first, and MDA actions were largely incoherent. Communications work was unable therefore to lift itself from an information focus. Increased knowledge and information would lead to more citizen part icipation, more information and sharing of success stories, increased responses and MDA behaviour changes • This proved to be only partially correct : information is important, but it is only part of the package. • The perfect circle , as described in the italic ised heading above, did not happen PNB partners then presented their joint analyses (by district) on programme design issues. These are summarised in the chart below Figure 4 : CSO presentations on design issues District Programme t oo short to effect change MDA Comms and internal links MDA accountability not built in and not visible Why was self - reporting weak? Partners included Anonymity Challenges What Worked Well? Kono X X Call centre problems Partners were the correct ones; DCs should have been included X i) Citizen awareness ii) Some MDA actions Kenema X X i) Deployment of animators at chiefdom levels ii) ACC/CSO working together iii) Some IMC engagements iv) AFs and RTWGs Bo Culture of silence Partners were the correct ones; DCs i) Deployment of animators at chiefdom levels

17. ANTI - CORRUP TION S UPPORT TO SIERRA LEONE – NOVEMBER CSO LESSON LEARNING WORKSHOP 14 COFFEY – DECEMBER 2018 IEC materials (posters + disability friendly IECs) X X Social media (but limited by low literacy) X Challenges Radio airtim e not enough X IEC challenges X X X Challenges with radio access X Less attention given to HSS X Call Centre problems X X X X Challenges collecting success stories X X X Forum theatre: effective but no funds X X Lack of actions f rom MDAs X Phone challenges X As the workshop was running late and energy levels were low, it was decided to break at this point, postpone Session Eight to next day and renumber it as Session Eleven . Day Two, Session Ten: Recap and Emerging Co nclusions from Day One ACSL provided a short summary of the previous day’s discussions. Much of the day had focused on discussions around MDA shortcomings and why things hadn’t worked as well as they should have done. Key points were: • Management of MDAs is key – they are not performing well. • IMCs need training and resources to perform the job – defining responses requires more than just a meeting. • Communication between districts and HQ is very weak And in terms of resolution: • Support buy - in of MDAs with cl ear structures, • Take advantage of working through VP’s office – ensure that it provides oversight and enforces compliance and accountability. • Ensure coordination between HQ IMCs and districts – should this be in office of VP? • Track development of respons es – should be a process In relation to Day Two’s agenda, it was also emphasised that further analysis was required of 515 self - reporting issues: all surveys tell us that people know about 515, but we need analysis of why they don’t phone: • Why are our ano nymity messages not getting across? • Why are our ‘something is happening’ messages not getting across? • What is behind the weak collection of success stories ? . ( For th is latter topic, CSOs have consistently said that they have many success stories but until recently they have fail ed to capture them in a usable format . ) Day Two, Session Eleven (previously Session 8): Exploring Communications and Outreach The p urpose of this session was to high light strategic lessons around c ommunications, citizen engagement a nd self - reporting. Participants broke into five mixed groups of District, CSO, ACC and ACSL staff discuss to discuss Communications and Outreach issues, each group taking one of the following preparation questions. • What are the 2 most cost - effective commun ication formats and why? • What can be done to convince/inspire the public to report to the PNB?

38. Day 1 – Reflections on final PNB results Time Session + Purpose Format Outputs Comments 8.30 – 8.45 Introduction Purpose : Get to know each other Introductory exercise: stand up; walk around; introduce oneself to people you don’t know. 8.45 – 9.45 Session One Overview Purpose : to present final results from monitoring, Endline survey, mini perceptions survey, plus success stories from Comms work. Welcome by ACC and Coffey. - Lynda to introduce Endline survey - Martin to present Mini - Perceptions surveys. Q and A, discussion Plenary Flipcharts noting any key issues and question s raised Helen to facilitate 9:45 – 10.45 Session Two Pre - prepared presentations: Programme Design : the good and the not - so - good Purpose : to identify and share which aspects of programme design worked and which didn’t and was/should have been adapted. Brief presentation on Design assumptions/ToC. Lynda Pre - prepared presentations of lessons on programme design; - 5 comments on programme design and should be included in a future programme and why 5 district teams x 8 minutes each. 1 ACSL x 8 minutes Fac ilitated Discussion to deepen analysis Plenary Pre - prepared PPT files and flipcharts: Lists of good elements and not - so - good elements for each District team and ACSL Flipcharts of key discussion points and conclusions Patrick or Edita to facilitate Helen to take notes Donal/Martin on flipcharts 10.45 – 11.05 Coffee 11.05 – 12.05 Session Four Pre - prepared presentations: on MDAs Purpose: to present thinking to date identify MDA conclusions Brief presentation MDA assumptions - Lynda - ACC /Coffey to present PNB results on MDA reports and actions Each District Team presents prepared comments on MDAs Questions were: • What worked in building responsiveness in MDAs (some or all) in PNB? • What didn’t work so well? • What can (and should) cont inue (give specific examples and narratives)? • What can be done now to maximise IMC national – district – national information flow • What could the ACC do differently to bring about IMC engagement a/ national level b/ district level 5 district teams x 7 minut es each. 1 ACSL x 7 minutes Short Q&A for clarification Plenary Pre - prepared PPT files and flipcharts. Key points from discussion on flip - charts: Edita and Martin to facilitate 12.05 – 13.05 Lunch

41. 10.30 – 11.00 Session Twelve Prepared presentations on Lesson Learning by PNB Purpose : clarify good practice for lesson learning Lynda brief intro – Was the programme able to learn from its experience and flexibly adapt? Presentation - four comments per district on w hat could have been done to improve lesson learning by PNB. • In what ways were lessons captured and shared under PNB? Give examples? • In what ways was learning integrated into adapted approaches? Was there learning without adaptability? • What ar e the most sustainable elements of the programme and why is this? • What hasn’t worked or been achieved and why is this? • Where were the gaps? Short Q&A, no discussion Plenary Flipcharts from presentations : List all key points and examples Martin to facilitate Helen to take notes Donal/Momoh on flipcharts 11.00 – 11.20 Coffee 11.20 – 11.45 Session Thirteen Lesson learning: Purpose : agree good practice for lesson learning Plenary discussion on Lesson learning conclusions Flipcharts of discussions Notes of discussions Martin to facilitate Donal flips Helen Notes 11.45 – 12.30 Session Fourteen Citizen Engagement and Self reporting Purpose: to highlight strategic lessons around citizen engagement and self - reporting Introduction by Lynda. Mixed group discussion on why it was not possible for PNB to bring about greater levels of public self - reporting • Wrong strategies? • Incorrect assumptions? • Cultural and social reasons? • Quality of implementation? • External factors Mixed groups: all participants randomly assigned to 5 groups District, CSO, ACC and ACSL staff Lynda to introduce Martin to facilitate Donal/Momoh on flipcharts Helen to take notes 12.30 – 13.10 Session Fifteen Presentation of discussions around citizen self - reporting One person from each group to present comments from group discussions 5 minutes per group + short discussion Plenary Prepared presentations (flipcharts or ppt) Flipcharts of plenary discussions, also notes Helen to facilitate Donal/Momoh on flipcharts Lynda to take notes 13.10 – 14.00 Lunch 14.00 – 14.10 Energiser 14.10 – 15.00 Work on District Sustainability Plans Each district to look at their DSP updates and amend/modify in the light of the workshop to date, then Flipcharts from presentations Martin to facilitate

27. Annex Three : District Team Presentations ACC - NMJD Kono K O N O P R E S E N T A T I O N O N P N B F I N A L L E A R N I N G A N D S H A R I N G P R O J E C T D E S I G N P R O G R A M D E S I G N Q u e s t i o n I m p a c t / R e a s o n s W h a t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e W h a t w o r k e d w e l l W h a t d i d n o t w o r k e d w e l l T o w h a t e x t e n t d o e s r a i s i n g k n o w l e d g e l e v e l s o f c i t i z e n s h a v e a n i m p a c t o n c i t i z e n ’ s a t t i t u d e s a n d a c t i o n s ? T h e k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d b y C i t i z e n s , h e l p t o r e b u i l d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g m o r e e s p e c i a l l y o n f r e e s e r v i c e s t o w h i c h t h e y c o u l d n o w c a l l a n d r e p o r t , r e s i s t a n d a r g u e o u t t h e i r r i g h t s w h i l e a c c e s s i n g s e r v i c e s . T h e t i m e l i n e o r d u r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t i s s h o r t a s t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t c o r r u p t i o n i s a b e h a v i o r a l c h a n g e a p p r o a c h w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e a c h i e v e d o v e r n i g h t P u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o n b r i b e r y a n d c o r r u p t i o n S o m e a c t i o n s t a k e n b y M D A s a r e n o t s u s t a i n a b l e . e g . R e m o v a l a n d e r e c t i o n o f i l l e g a l c h e c k p o i n t s W h y d i d n ’ t m o r e c i t i z e n s ’ s e l f - r e p o r t ? P l e a s e g i v e e x a m p l e s L a c k o f t r u s t i n M D A s a c t i o n s a n d t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e c a l l C e n t r e ( s o m e t i m e s t h e c a l l C e n t r e l i n e g o e s d o w n / s l o w r e s p o n s e t o c a l l s ) C a l l e r s t o n a m e d e f a u l t e r s / h o n e s t o f f i c i a l s C i t i z e n s n o w m a k i n g u s e o f t h e r e p o r t i n g p l a t f o r m P r o t o c o l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a l l p r o c e s s . e g . D e l a y i n a n s w e r i n g c a l l s , p h o n e s w i t c h e d o f f s o m e t i m e s , m a n n e r o f a p p r o a c h a t t h e c a l l C e n t r e e t c . T o w h a t e x t e n t w a s i t c o r r e c t t o a s s u m e t h a t m o r e t r a n s p a r e n c y a n d p u b l i c p r e s s u r e w o u l d i n f l u e n c e M D A s b e h a v i o r ? W h a t h a s b e e n t h e r e a l i t y ? W h a t e l s e w o u l d i n f l u e n c e M D A ? N a m i n g a n d s h a m i n g o f d e f a u l t e r s p u b l i c l y . T h e r e a l i t y i s t h a t M D A s a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r a c t i o n s . P r o m p t a c t i o n s b y A C C , s t a f f a p p r a i s a l a n d s t a f f a p p r o v a l w i l l h e l p t o i n f l u e n c e M D A s A C C t o t a k e a c t i o n s a n d n o t s o l e l y s y s t e m r e f o r m a c t i o n s ( A C C t o t a k e a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n s a s c o m p l a i n t s a r e m a d e i n c l u d i n g s y s t e m r e f o r m s S o m e c i t i z e n s n o w r e s i s t p a y i n g b r i b e T o w h a t e x t e n t w a s t h e C S O / A C C m o d e l t h e r i g h t o n e t o r a i s e c i t i z e n ’ s a w a r e n e s s a n d b r i n g a b o u t g r e a t e r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ? A C C b e e n t h e p a r e n t b o d y i n t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t c o r r u p t i o n w a s t h e r i g h t c h o i c e t o l e a d i n P N B a n d C S O s b e e n t h e m o u t h p i e c e o f t h e g r a s s r o o t p e o p l e , t h e r i g h t p a r t n e r i n P N B i m p l e m e n t a t i o n N a m i n g a n d s h a m i n g o f d e f a u l t e r s t o i n f l u e n c e M D A s C e r t a i n M D A s t o o k s o m e a c t i o n s . e . g . E D S A s u s p e n d e d f o u r o f i t s s t a f f m e m b e r s d u e t o a b u s e d o f o f f i c e W h i c h o t h e r p a r t n e r s h o u l d b e i n c l u d e d , i f a n y ( e . g . D i s t r i c t c o u n c i l ) ? H o w ? I n v o l v e m e n t o f C u s t o d i a n s o f t h e l a n d , R e l i g i o u s L e a d e r s a n d C o u n c i l s t h r o u g h d i a l o g u e M D A s Q u e s t i o n W h a t w o r k e d w e l l W h a t d i d n o t w o r k e d w e l l W h a t w o r k e d w e l l i n b u i l d i n g r e s p o n s i v e n e s s i n M D A s ( s o m e o r a l l ) i n P N B ? M D A s c o o p e r a t i o n i n a t t e n d i n g P N B m e e t i n g s . S u b m i s s i o n o f p r o p o s a l s a n d a c t i o n s t a k e n t h o u g h s o m e a c t i o n s w e r e h o w e v e r n o t s u s t a i n e d . C o r d i a l w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a l l M D A s D i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f I M C m e m b e r s i n T W G a n d A c c o u n t a b i l i t y m e e t i n g s T o w h a t e x t e n t w a s i t c o r r e c t t o a s s u m e t h a t g r e a t e r M D A r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o p u b l i c r e p o r t s / c o m p l a i n t s w o u l d l e a d t o h i g h e r l e v e l o f p u b l i c s e l f - r e p o r t i n g e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h 5 1 5 ? M D A s t o t a k e v i s i b l e a n d s u s t a i n e d a c t i o n s o n c i t i z e n s r e p o r t ( s ) t o m o t i v a t e h i g h e r r e p o r t i n g S o m e g a g s i d e n t i f i e d w e r e n o t a d d r e s s e d . e g . N o s e r v i c e c h a r t e r s , n o r e c e i p t g i v e n f o r s o m e p a y m e n t m a d e a t f a c i l i t i e s . E . g . K o i d u g o v e r n m e n t H o s p i t a l W h a t c a n ( a n d s h o u l d ) c o n t i n u e ( g i v e s p e c i f i c e x a m p l e s a n d n a r r a t i v e ) ? T h e m o n i t o r i n g o n M D A s f o r c o m p l i a n c e a n d t h e u s e o f t h e r e p o r t i n g p l a t f o r m . S o m e C i t i z e n s p r e f e r t o r e p o r t o n t h e p l a t f o r m t h a n t o c o m e t o A C C O f f i c e t o m a k e c o m p l a i n t s / r e p o r t b e c a u s e i t i s c o s t f r e e L a c k o f s u s t a i n e d a c t i o n s W h a t c a n b e d o n e n o w t o m a x i m i z e I M C n a t i o n a l t o d i s t r i c t t o n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s ? D i s t r i c t m e e t i n g s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l . S o m e M D A s i n f o r m t h e T W G o f a c t i o n s f r o m H Q M D A s t o r e v i e w a n d r e v a m p t h e i r c h a n n e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n H Q a n d t h e d i s t r i c t s W h a t c o u l d t h e A C C d o d i f f e r e n t l y t o b r i n g a b o u t I M C e n g a g e m e n t a / n a t i o n a l b / d i s t r i c t l e v e l ? T h e r e a r e c l e a r l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n A C C & I M C s a t D i s t r i c t l e v e l . A C C t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e D i s t r i c t a n d N a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f l o w b e t w e e n I M C s a n d m o u n t p r o p e r m o n i t o r i n g t o e n s u r e c o m p l i a n c e W h a t w e r e t h e g a p s ? C o m m u n i c a t i o n g a p b e t w e e n I M C s a t D i s t r i c t l e v e l a n d t h e N a t i o n a l l e v e l C O M M U N I C A T I O N A N D O U T R E A C H Q u e s t i o n W h a t w o r k w e l l W h a t d i d n ' t w o r k w e l l T o w h a t e x t e n t w a s a n i m a t o r s p l u s m e d i a p l u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t h e r i g h t s e t s o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d w h y s o ? T h e s e w e r e t h e b e s t w a y s t o k e e p t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n f o r m e d b e c a u s e t h e t h r e e c h a n n e l s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n m a k e s i t e a s i e r f o r t h e p u b l i c t o k n o w a b o u t P N B T w o R a d i o t i m e a m o n t h w a s n o t e n o u g h , p o s t e r s r a n o u t m o s t t i m e s , n o r a d i o c o v e r a g e i n s o m e c o m m u n i t i e s . e g F a l a b a D i s t r i c t . T h e r a d i o p r o g r a m s t a t e d f o r F a l a b a w a s d o n e i n K o n o W h a t w o r k e d b e s t a n d l e s s i n i n f o r m i n g c i t i z e n s a b o u t b r i b e r y ? A w a r e n e s s r a i s i n g & m a s s s e n s i t i z a t i o n H o b a n d s p o k e s w a s m o r e n e e d e d b u t l e s s a t t e n t i o n w e r e g i v e n t o i t W h a t c a n a n d s h o u l d c o n t i n u e ? R a d i o d i s c u s s i o n , m o n i t o r i n g o f M D A s / I M C s a n d I E C m a t e r i a l s H o w w e l l d i d s u c c e s s s t o r i e s w e r e c a p t u r e d a n d w h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e d i f f e r e n t l y ? T h r o u g h a n i m a t i o n a n d a w a r e n e s s r a i s i n g N o C o f f e y s t a f f w i t h t h e k n o w h o w t o c o l l e c t s t o r i e s o f c h a n g e w a s a s s i g n e d t o t h e C S O s . T h i s m a k e s t h e t a s k d i f f i c u l t f o r C S O s H o w w e l l d i d s u c c e s s s t o r i e s w e r e s h a r e d ? W h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e d i f f e r e n t l y ? T h r o u g h r a d i o p r o g r a m s , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r u m s , T W G , T / H m e e t i n g s a n d a n i m a t i o n . N o C o f f e y s t a f f w i t h t h e k n o w h o w t o c o l l e c t s t o r i e s o f c h a n g e w a s a s s i g n e d t o t h e C S O s . T h i s m a k e s t h e t a s k d i f f i c u l t f o r C S O s H o w e f f e c t i v e w e r e t h e d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e m e d i a ? V e r y c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e m e d i a a n d t h e t e a m w o r k i n g o n t h e P N B i n K o n o W h i c h I E C f o r m a t s w o r k e d b e s t a n d w h y ? W r i s t b a n , P o s t e r s w i t h g l u e . I t ’ s e a s i e r t o f i x a n d h a n d l e I E C m a t e r i a l s w e r e l i m i t e d i n s u p p l y a n d t h o s e w i t h o u t g l u e w e r e d i f f i c u l t t o h a n d l e w h y t h e p u b l i c n o t c a l l i n g 5 1 5 a n d w h a t t o i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n ? L a c k o f s u s t a i n e d a c t i o n s b y M D A s a n d t o t a k e i m p r o v e t h i s , A C C t o t a k e l e a d i n a c t i o n a g a i n s t d e f a u l t e r s a n d t o i m p r o v e o n t h e c a l l C e n t r e r e s p o n s e W h a t w e r e t h e g a p s ? L a c k o f s u s t a i n e d a c t i o n s a n d t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f t h e c a l l C e n t r e L E S S O N S L E A R N T Q u e s t i o n L e s s o n s L e a r n t W h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n d o n e t o i m p r o v e l e s s o n l e a r n i n g b y P N B i t s e l f ? T h e a c t i o n s t o b e t a k e n t o a d d r e s s c i t i z e n s c o m p l a i n t s s h o u l d h a v e n o t t o t a l l y l e f t i n t h e h a n d s o f M D A s I n w h a t w a y s w e r e l e s s o n s c a p t u r e d a n d s h a r e d u n d e r P N B ? G i v e e x a m p l e s ? T h r o u g h a n i m a t i o n , P N B m e e t i n g s / o u t r e a c h a n d R a d i o p r o g r a m s W h a t a r e t h e m o s t s u s t a i n a b l e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p r o g r a m a n d w h y i s t h a t ? T h e r e p o r t i n g p l a t f o r m ( 5 1 5 , A p p a n d w e b s i t e ) c h a n n e l b e c a u s e i t i s c o s t f r e e a n d h a s t o c o n t i n u e a f t e r P N B W h a t h a s n ’ t w o r k e d o r b e e n a c h i e v e d a n d w h y i s t h a t ? T h e s y s t e m r e f o r m a c t i o n s b e c a u s e a c t i o n s w e r e t o t a l l y l e f t i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e p r o j e c t M D A s W h a t w e r e t h e g a p s ? T h e d e s i g n o f t h e P N B B o t h M D A s a n d c i t i z e n s p r e f e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o n d e f a u l t e r s / h o n e s t o f f i c i a l s P N B s e r v e a s a r e m i n d e r / c a u t i o n t o o l t o M D A s T h e p r e s e n t o f A n i m a t o r s c r e a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f A C C i n c o m m u n i t i e s a n i m a t e d C i t i z e n s k n o w l e d g e w e r e n a r r o w o n f r e e s e r v i c e s b u t w i t h P N B t h a t h a s b e e n b r o a d e n a n d s o m e r e s i s t n o w p a y i n g b r i b e C i t i z e n s g e t c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e u s e o f P N B r e p o r t i n g p l a t f o r m t h a n t o g o i n p e r s o n a n d r e p o r t t o A C C

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